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    一切的照明設計都是為了視覺而服務——亮度
    更新時間:2019-01-23   瀏覽:

    通俗一點講,亮度其實就是“人眼看上去有多亮”的直觀感受。例如在夜色里的小小蠟燭,即使火焰很微弱但看上去還是非常的亮。

    亮度的定義

    那么,有沒有一個物理量可以準確地去判斷人眼對這種光強度的實際感受呢?

    實際上這個物理量是存在的,它被稱之為“亮度”。這個亮度也就是大家平常所說的“某個空間內光環境的亮暗強弱”。

    它的定義有點繞口:指光源在給定方向上單位面積單位立體角內所發出的光通量,單位為cd/㎡。

    其實最簡單直觀的理解就是:你看到的對象物有多亮。

    大家應該都有這種體會:亮度是最容易被視覺感官所認知的一個東西。如果你看某一個物體,它看上去就很亮那就是亮度高;如果看上去很暗那就是亮度低。

    所以,雖然亮度的定義看起來很難懂,但理解起來反倒是最容易的。

    亮度分布參考值

    我們常說“一切的照明設計都是為了視覺而服務”。但人在不同的方向或角度下觀看到的亮度是各不相同的;即使照明條件相同,不同物體的亮度也各有差異。

    因此,在此種情況下需要一個亮度參考值。

    這張亮度分布參考圖可供大家參考(使用對象為普通人群)。



    a.人眼能察覺的最低亮度為0.1cd/㎡

    b.道路亮度一般為1 cd/㎡

    c.識別人臉特征的亮度為2—20 cd/㎡

    d.墻和天棚的優選亮度為50—200 cd/㎡

    e.優選的作業亮度為100—1000 cd/㎡

    f.一般照明燈允許的亮度值為1000—10000 cd/㎡

    g.160000cd/㎡的亮度會使人感到刺眼,無法正常工作

    如果是高齡者,則需將房間的整體亮度提升至年輕人的2—3倍;

    高齡者閱讀

    而青少年長期伏案做作業、玩電子產品,工作面亮度過高或不足都容易引起眼睛疲勞。所以,要確保青少年書桌面或學習環境的亮度適宜。

    亮度調控及對比

    當一個環境很暗的時候,人眼看不太清楚;隨著亮度增長并達到某一個值時,人眼也會看不清楚。

    亮度由左至右依次增長

    這是因為環境亮度如果超出眼睛的適應范圍,眼睛的靈敏度反而會下降。所以光環境應該選擇一個適宜的亮度范圍,不要過高也不要太低。

    觀看物與背景亮度對比

    其次,觀看對象與其背景之間會存在一定的亮度差異,并產生對比效果。如果差異越來越小,觀看物體的清晰程度也會越來越低。



    因而,在室內設計時也要注重亮度的對比效果。

    345彩票
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