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    了解室外照明設計,從泛光照明開始
    更新時間:2019-01-25   瀏覽:

    通常用投光燈或泛光燈照射某一情境的目標,且其照度比周圍照明明顯高的照明方式。其照明效果不僅能凸顯建筑物的全貌,還能有效地表現景物的造型、立體感、飾面顏色、材料質感,甚至是裝飾細部的處理。

    泛光照明不是簡單地重現建筑物的白天形象,而是利用投光照明的光、色、影的手段,重塑建筑物在夜間更加動人、俏麗、雄偉壯觀的形象。

    泛光照明的技術要點

    目前建筑外觀亮化運用最多的泛光裝飾照明技術不是簡單的泛光和照明,而是燈光的景觀藝術和技術的融合體現,其設計施工應根據建筑的地位、功能、特色配置不同的泛光燈具,以便在建筑不同部位、不同功能區體現不同的燈光語言。

    泛光燈的投射角度和方向

    用分隔的成組泛光燈具沿同一方向向受照對象投射,或從兩個方向以對比的色調投射,都可以得到增強立體感的效果,而投光燈的投射角使得投射陰影的存在,陰影和明亮的對比也可以突出建筑立面的立體感。

    投射陰影的大小取決于建筑表面凹凸程度和照明光線的投射角度。照明光線的平均方向角度與表面法線應該不小于45度,為了突出一個特別低的凸面應該增加投射角度。

    泛光燈投射距離與亮度

    在夜晚,建筑和雕塑細部的可見度主要取決于亮度,因此泛光燈具根據需要可以遠距離或近距離設置,也可以顯露地或隱蔽地設置。

    遠距離投射可以改進亮度的均勻性,近距離投射則能強調受照面的細部和質地。對整個受照面來說,其上部的平均亮度為下部的2~4倍時,可使觀察者產生上下部亮度相等的感覺。

    泛光燈的安裝位置和數量

    根據建筑物本身特點,盡可能地使泛光燈離開建筑物一定距離設置。為得到較均勻的亮度,其距離與建筑物的高度之比不應小于1/10。如條件限制的可直接在建筑物本體上安裝泛光燈,在國外有些建筑的立面結構設計的時候就考慮了外觀的亮化需要,有專門給泛光燈安裝預留的安裝臺,使得安裝泛光設備后見光不見燈,從而保持建筑立面外觀的整體性。

    遠距離投射可以改進亮度的均勻性,近距離投射則能強調受照面的細部和質地。對整個受照面來說,其上部的平均亮度為下部的2~4倍時,可使觀察者產生上下部亮度相等的感覺。

    泛光燈的安裝位置和數量

    根據建筑物本身特點,盡可能地使泛光燈離開建筑物一定距離設置。為得到較均勻的亮度,其距離與建筑物的高度之比不應小于1/10。如條件限制的可直接在建筑物本體上安裝泛光燈,在國外有些建筑的立面結構設計的時候就考慮了外觀的亮化需要,有專門給泛光燈安裝預留的安裝臺,使得安裝泛光設備后見光不見燈,從而保持建筑立面外觀的整體性。

    ▲在建筑物的下面放置投光燈,建筑物的立面亮起來的時候就會顯出沒亮的那一面,明暗交錯,還原建筑物的光影立體感。(手繪:梁賀Lego)

    建筑本體上安裝泛光燈突出建筑物長度應控制在0.7m-1m以內,避免光斑現象的發生。燈具與建筑的間隔大小與泛光燈的光束類型、建筑物的高度有關,同時考慮被照立面的顏色和周圍環境亮度等因素。當泛光燈的光束為窄配光并且墻面照度要求較高、被照體較暗、周圍環境亮時,可以采用較密的布燈方式,反之燈間隔可加大。

    泛光燈的光色選擇

    一般來說建筑外觀的亮化重點是用光來體現建筑之美,用顯色性較強的光源展示出建筑白天的本來色彩。

    1)不要企圖用光色去改變建筑的外觀色調,而應依據建筑本體的材料、色質等用接近的光色去照亮或加強。如金黃的屋頂常用光色偏黃的高壓鈉燈光源加強照明,青色的屋面和墻體則多用偏白和顯色性較好的金鹵光源等。

    2)多種色彩光源的照明只適合短暫時間場合,最好不要用于建筑外觀的永久性投光設置,因為有顏色的光線在陰影的襯托下非常容易導致視覺疲勞。

    ▲2015世博意大利國家館,僅對建筑使用了泛光照明。照明白色表面,是很難的。選擇光色時,對“白體”色點的把握很重要。這個表面是粗糙的亞光材料,用遠距離大面積投光的方式,是正確的,泛光燈的投射角度也使得光色產生了從下到上的“漸變”退暈,相當漂亮。

    泛光燈具防眩

    在泛光照明設計時要充分的考慮到周圍的照明環境,為了保證具有較好的均勻度,安裝在建筑上面的燈具間隔應是托架長度的2.5~3倍,如果間隔太寬的話,則會產生扇形的亮區。

    如果采用側面照明,要考慮燈具的遮擋,使不需要的光盡可能的減少,而在對建筑物的泛光照明中,基本上是將燈具從下向上照射,這樣可最大性的避免眩光。

    ▲在對建筑物的泛光照明中,可將燈具從下向上照射,這樣就不太容易引起眩光。

    最后,小編呈上泛光照明的設計要求:

    1、在近處能夠看清楚建筑立面細部的材料顏色和質感等,在遠處能夠看清楚建筑體量和立面的光色;

    2、要掌握建筑立面的特點,從幾個不同的角度照射,以便產生顯著的立體感,特別是產生光色的層次效果;

    3、要突出照射建筑立面,使它與周圍環境形成明暗對比,充分發揮周圍環境的陪襯作用;

    4、了解建筑立面材料對光的反射比,在此基礎上確定要求的照度。

    泛光照明案例分享

    北京王府井

    上海南京路

    ▲上海南京路主要運用建筑化泛光照明,營造時尚、經典、絢麗的光環境。

    埃及金字塔

    ▲埃及金字塔這種簡單幾何體的石材構筑物,從遠距離實施泛光照明是最可行的手段。

     

    大連國際會議中心

    巴黎埃菲爾鐵塔

    ▲埃菲爾鐵塔的照明設計者針對其鋼結構網架的特點,采用了在其塔身的各網架點設置照明燈具,利用泛光照明的方式將整個鋼結構塔身照射得明亮透亮。

    投光照明雖然是比較常用的室外照明設計手法之一,但如果在結構復雜的建筑上單純使用泛光照明,容易造成照明缺乏層次,甚至光污染問題。因此小編提倡使用多元的空間立體照明,綜合使用泛光照明、輪廓燈照明、內透光照明、動感照明等方法。

    照明設計從來都不是單獨存在的,城市夜景照明更是作為一門建筑電氣設計領域新興的技術存在,所以在做照明設計規劃時,需要與建筑風格配合。

    345彩票
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